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Reddish, brown or black pigments that cause the color of the skin, hair, and eyes and serve as effective protection from the harmful effects of UV radiation.
There are large individual differences in the melanin concentration in the skin (tanning). Depending on the preirradiation the protective effect is stronger or weaker. So the positive effect of UV radiation still can take place e.g. production of Vitamin D


A sliver-colored heavy metal that is liquid at room temperature. It has favorable vaporization properties an is easy to excite in the vapor phase, whereby it has excellent properties for efficient generation of radiation.
It resolves alloys spontaneously with many other mettals, called amalgams.
Since it can attack light materials in aircrafts in this way, there are transport restrictions on mercury.
Mercury is toxic. Inhaled mercury vapors are very toxic.
Lamps and spotlights contain a few milligrams of mercury and should not be disposed of with houshold waste.

Optical radiation

Electromagnetic radiation in wavelengths from short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (100-380 nm) to visible light at 380 to 780 nm and long-wavelength infrared radiation (780 nm to 1 mm).


Substandes with a higher energy level are produced by photosynthesis by absorption of light energy.
By using sun energy photosynthesis provides building materials and fuel to any living thing.


In contrast to the lighttherapy phototherapy has no effect on the impression of brightness in the human eye.
This refers to therapies with influence on the skin by optical radiation e.g. treatment of neurodermatitis and psoriasis.
Mostly this happens also with the inclusion of substances which influence the radiation sensitifity, e.g. in the PUVA therapy.


Component, that redirects radiation from a radiation source for a particular purpose.
By the choice of the reflector material, the spectral composition of the reflected radiation can be influenced. Some coated glass reflectors reduce the heat in the radiation field, by being transmissible to infrared radiation.


The spectrum is the segmentation of the radiation according to their wavelength components.


Starters are componentr for operating a low-pressure lamp with a heated electrode.
Starters have limited life time and must be changed regularly.

Sun-Erythema Factor

The fse is the reference name of the eryhtemal irradiance at 0,3W/m². This value is a typical value at clear sky near the equator at midday.
It is not the highest expected value on earth and it's also reached in areas far away from the equator.
A fse of 100% ist 0.3W/m², 50% is only 0,25W/m².
There are other, similar references e.g. the meteorology UV index.


a measure of how well waves can pass through a given medium

UVA Output

UVA is the radiation in the wavelength range of 315 – 400 nanometres. It is primarily responsible for so-called “instant tanning” – the tanning of pigments present in the skin. This is the tan the customer usually notices immediately after a sunbed session.

UVB Output

UVB is the radiation in the wavelength range of 280 – 315 nanometres. UVB is mainly used to vary the sun-erythema factor of a tube with a determined UVA Output.

UV radiation

an abbrevation for ultraviolet radiation, which is more energetic and has a shorter wavelength compared to visible light and is invisible to the human eye.
UV radiation is further classified as UV-A radiation, UV-B radiation and UV-C radiation.